Mario Tenuta, Professor of Soil Science at the University of Manitoba, studies nutrient management on a variety of crops, including ways to reduce nitrogen loss. His research has looked at various Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer (EEF) technologies, including in-depth studies on ESN Smart Nitrogen. His research has found that EEFs have advantages during wet growing seasons. His research has also found that ESN reduces emissions of nitric oxide into the environment by reducing loss mechanisms. These losses are especially reduced in the early growing season, after spring N applications. Overall, the research shows that ESN helps to achieve a reduction in nitric oxide emissions in several crops, at times between 30-50 percent.